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MDes in Interior Design

Students on the Masters programme in Interior Design worked through lockdown, with their supervisors, in little island-clusters. This studio-archipelago enabled a fresh critique of disciplinary custom and practice. In a subject such as interiors, so entwined with the experiential, the material and the temporal, how could we bridge the space between the real and the virtual. When perspective is delivered through the narrow channels of the lens, mic, screen and speaker, how do we preserve meaning. When operating in a distributed way, how do we support diverse and distinct expressions of identity while maintaining meaningful interconnectedness.

These and other questions were floated between participants, their answers may be found embedded in the work you will discover here.

Patrick Macklin, Head of Department

Egyptian Halls/ Ground floor floorplan

The project aims to turn back the Egyptian Halls into a place for people to work, learn and make by transforming the building into workspaces for makers engaged in redefining their creative practices from the perspective of sustainability. The active ground floor will house a ceramicist studio and shop, a cafe and a sustainable fabric shop. The workshops and open studios will be located on the upper floors of the building.

Material bank

The interiors of the building, which had had layers of alterations over time, were deconstructed in order to provide a material bank to inform and generate the new interiors. The positive deconstruction process redefines waste construction materials as valuable material resources. The drawing expresses the elements that were dismantled and reused within the new layout.


Ground floor: Ceramicist in residence workshop and studio/ Cafe/Sustainable fabric shop. 1st floor: Textile workshops. 2nd floor: Printmaking workshops. 3rd: Ceramics

Axonometric view of the ground floor

Axonometric view of the ground floor shops. From left to right: Ceramicist's shop and studio/ Cafe/ Sustainable fabric shop. All shops have access to the back lane to make it into an active lane and allow spaces for community workshops within the different shops.


Perspective view of the ground floor café.

Ceramicist in residence workshop

Perspective view of the ceramicist in residence workshop on the ground floor.

Sustainable fabric shop

Perspective view of the ground floor fabric shop.

Axonometric view of the textiles studios

Axonometric view of the textiles studios located on the 1st floor. There is a weaving studio, an embroidery room, fashion studios, print room with exposing and drying area, a sustainable material research room and a botanical dye lab. There is also a common open space for talks, open studios for community learning and a material library for research and study.

Detailed axonometric of the textile studios

The interior was designed to be flexible, adaptable to changes and potentially dismantable in the future so that it is truly sustainable. Partitions that were added are made of wood so that they are non-intrusive (highlighted in green). Some partitions were repurposed from the previous layout (highlighted in blue) to reduce waste materials. Finally the bridge partition acts as a bridge between studios, expression of the collaborative approach encouraged within the studios.

Social Distancing

Audition Adjuster

Vision Adjuster

Extended Hand/ Arm

A New Normative Body

Opening / Seat

Lavatory / Storage



Coffee Shop



Somatic Experience, Room 1

Somatic Experience Therapy starts with symptoms of trauma which are anger, fear, anxiety or physical problems.

Once entering the room people are asked how they are feeling and will be provided with access through different entry ways accordingly. People who feel angry and frustrated are provided with an entry point where they have to squeeze through to allow a release of some of their anger physically. People who feel scared and anxious are provided with an entry point where they are met with turnstile to help them push through their fears with guidance. The third and final point of entry is for people who have been affected physically by trauma by having no physical obstruction in their way to enter. This system of access is repeated at the exit of the room and this is so that people can be aware and considerate of their feelings before and after the journey through this room.

Somatic Experience, Room 1

The first stage in the Somatic experience is finding a comfort zone. These digital panels change colours in a therapeutic manner to create a calming and comforting effect and with the distraction of this space, people should be able to ease and clear their minds. Bio-plastic tiles can be collected here and this tile will be carried through the journey after which the visitors may mould it however they wish to then leave behind in the building’s atrium in order to share their personal stories and feelings with others.

Somatic Experience, Room 1

Somatic Experience, Room 1

Somatic Experience, Room 1

Somatic Experience, Room 1

The second stage in the Somatic Experience is for people to identify and explore the effects of the traumatic event. This can be a difficult process and therefore a personal space is provided where people can write about their traumatic experiences. It is an important step to talk about what is hurting to be able to take the experience as a lesson and to be able to read what other people have experienced can help others to open up about their own experiences.

Somatic Experience, Room 1

Somatic Experience, Room 1

The final stage in Somatic experience is to identify how the body needs to respond and to find a natural and safe way to release negative energy. The back and forth motion of a swing can help people to calm down while the swinging motion can also be a physical release of energy.

Cognitive Behaviour, Room 2

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is a cycle of emotions, thoughts and behaviours. This means that what we feel affects how we think and act. What we think affects how we feel and act. And what we do affects how we think and feel.

When entering this room, people will find themselves in a cage structure. The aim of this structure is to symbolise a beautiful prison. This is because a place of withdrawal is often the easiest thing to do for people who have experienced a traumatic event and although it is beautiful, is it also a prison for emotions. At this stage people should be able to recognise that coming out of their beautiful prison is a step they have to take as they are in control to leave and connect with others about their emotions and continue their journey to resilience. At the entrance, people are also presented with the end of a slide which happens to be the end of the journey around this room. This is because the end of the journey around the room goes back to the beautiful prison, symbolising just how easy it is to fall back into that trap and thus continuing the cycle of the therapy.

Cognitive Behaviour, Room 2

The next part of the room is where people are given a choice of creating confusion or order. Two strips of lights represent order as the lights are aligned perfectly meanwhile the middle strip of lights are controlled by the visitors and how they choose to connect them. The choice to connect the lights neatly or perhaps mix them up is a symbol of the next step after coming out of their beautiful prison of withdrawal, whereby the choices people could make is between continuing a troubled life not focusing on their mental health needs after a traumatic event or the choice to create order in their life and seek out professional help. Using the plastic bio-plastic tiles collected in room one, the next stage is for each individual to mould their tile in any way they wish in the craft corner. This could be a representation of their feelings, experiences or something more personal such as their palm or finger prints.

Cognitive Behaviour, Room 2

Continuing the journey throughout room two, people are presented with a set of stairs. Both the stairs and the upper level of room two are made out of a metal mesh that can be uncomfortable for people without shoes (as this is something that had to be removed on arrival). This metal mesh walkway is to control the way people move through this level as their steps are likely to be slow and steady. This is to symbolise that making this journey to resilience can be quite difficult at times and cannot be rushed.

Cognitive Behaviour, Room 2

Reflection Bubble Space

The second floor atrium space is where people have the opportunity to leave their personalised bio-plastic tiles. Representing each individual taking the necessary steps to a happier life. This space also serves as a waiting area as this building also provides one on one and group therapy sessions for those who feel ready to seek professional help. Also found in the atrium of the building, the bubble space designed to be used as a space for personal reflection. Entry can be made from the ground floor and from the second floor into a spiralling tunnel of bubbles. Within this building, this structured is designed to be permanent however similar structures can be built to be transported to different locations with its simple wooden frame and its deflatable quality to create an awareness of this Therapy centre and its facilities.

Reflection Bubble Space

Section (1) Reflection Bubble Space

Section (2) Rooms 1 and 2

The "New Interiors"


The research aims to highlight the importance as well as the direct impact interiors have on its users and their well-being/emotional health. It further wants to generate awareness about the urgency for design reforms that focus on gender-neutral spaces and not just male v/s female aspects. Thus, what the world of design needs right now is a sensitive design approach, both in terms of gender sensitivity and emotional sensitivity. It is now time to rid the world of mindless designs and create more approachable experiences that all types of user can encounter. The approach used to uncover the dynamics of a gender-balanced space that focuses on creating “positive” user-experience was one that revolved around decoding and disintegrating each element of a space in order to understand their true use, importance and original intent. The investigation entailed interpreting the psychology of users and how they perceive a “domestic” interior space through a thorough process of decoding each element that is considered neutral or biased. This included taking into account all aspects ranging from colour theory, spatial distribution to the amount of weightage given to each area as well as their lighting and materials. It further meant exploring the characteristics of a space that provoke emotions i.e, the ability of different materials/textures/patterns to generate emotions and their juxtaposition with spatial features of light/ventilation/openings etc.


Conceptual model 1 process images

The conceptualisation process began with first using the elements that through the previous stages of the research have been proven to bring neutrality or harmony into a space. Here, Hannah Rozenberg’s Building Without A Bias alogorithm has been used. Elements like - ARCHES, which is considered a strong element of stability and is also seen as gender-neutral in its form. SPIRAL STAIRCASE, to tone down the bulkiness of other regular staircases and add “curves” to the rigid fabric. WINDOW, for natural light of course and also it acts as blurring agent between outdoors and indoors. There is a metaphorical use of THE LAMP, as from the previous study in in PART 2 of literature review, I quoted J.Gibbs “If positioning of a lamp in a room is the idea, consideration needs to be given not only to the lamp but to all the specifications including the type, size, colour and wattage of the bulbs; the size, shape, material, and colour of the lampshade; the colour of the lamp lining; and the color of the flex.”


RENDER for Conceptual Model 1

The use of black and white materials for the models was to emphasise the gender-neutral aspect as these two colours are considered absolute and balanced in every way. The next step was to convert the abstract model into a more visual render that could help in envisioning the next stage of conceptualisation. The main idea here on the left was to “bring the outside indoors” and blur the idea of interior and exterior to some extent. This was done for the following reasons: 1. Metaphorically, if the outside world is for men and the indoors for women, what would happen if one can’t differentiate between the two? 2. It has been scientifically proven by various psychologists and designers that the closer you are to nature, the happier you will be. This raises the question of what would happen if the blurring of these two mediums leads to a more positive user-experience and a healthier mental state for the ones occupying this space? Thus, deeply inspired by these questions, the next few steps of conceptualisation involved further exploring the possibility of this idea and converting them into visual renders.


Conceptual Model 2

This iteration further explores the idea of merging the two mediums of design, that is, exteriors and interiors. There has been visible experimentation with the roof, materials and textures in this particular idea. The main intention behind using an irregular curved roof was to bring in the required “harmony” through a prominent form. Mostly the “balancing” both in terms of gender and emotions is achieved through changes in colour. However, this iteration explores different forms juxtaposed with contrasting textures to propose that same “harmony” through other aspects of design. The bold textures might be alarming to some but when viewed as a whole, the bold forms tone down the roughness of the textures. Overall, it is a play of rough textures with bold soft forms trying to strike a balance within a domestic setting. Again, the idea of merging the exteriors and interiors is highlighted to emphasise the concept of blurring mediums. The LAMP is again being used as a metaphor in this case.


Conceptual Model 3

This stage shows how by treating elements as seperate individual identities, it is possible to create a totally new dimension of a space that is neither specifically an interior space nor is specifically an exterior space. The dynamics are completely changed when interior elements such as the domestic furniture setting is used outside. This is just a glimpse of what could be if the idea of merging the two mediums is explored further.

Final Conceptualisation

Though the final outcome is still conceptual to some extent, the drawings and visuals are made on the basis of how it could practically be possible applying user discretion wherever required. The elements used in these descriptive floor plans can easily be applied to any other model to make it well-balanced in all & any respect.

From gender neutral elements obtained through previous stages and Hannah Rozenberg’s algorithm, to the concepts of Vastu and Feng-shui, this model mostly complies with all the “rules” uncovered so far. This design acts as a “twist” on a conventional domestic space and questions the names, functions, layouts and materials we usually assign to different parts of it. It is a mix of an abstract yet a practical approach and can easily be applied to any new setting to make it neutral and well-balanced in all forms.

There are total 6 levels and each of them represent a different domestic area. Each level has a different “function” but is also open to user discretion. The main idea of merging the exteriors and interiors remains the same while also making it “gender-neutral” & “positive” for enhanced user-experiences. There is a heavy use of arches (which is considered neutral) and materials like glass and concrete and enough openings (to balance out the bulkiness of the structure give the “merging with the outside” feeling to the users).

The Axo

This diagram highlights each level individually along with the different types of staircases being used on every floor level. Not all staircase are rigid while all are not curved either. There is a significant amount of glass being used on every level - firstly because it brings in vast amount of natural light (considered good for the well-being of users) and also supports the concept of merging the interior & exteriors. Secondly, it is being juxtaposed with the rough textures of concrete and stones to form visual harmony within the space. According to Vastu, the entrance should be in North while the bedroom should always be in South and the study in the West. According to Feng Shui, for a living room, one can use a mix of metal colors such as grey, white, silver, gold etc.

The Centre

Decoding the elements

-BLATANT USE OF ARCHES: This is done in order to make firstly involve elements that are seen as gender neutral. Secondly, they act as see-through barriers between the outside &inside thereby, merging the two mediums.Thirdly, provide freshness and make the space airy. -A bold chandelier highlights the delicate nature of the domestic setting while the infusion of rough textures seem to balance out the elements. -Use of a strong pattern to dull down the roughness of concrete - Black & white to highlight gender neutral colours. According to FENGSHUIPUNDIT, Since north is water zone and water element is represented by blue and black colors, hence favorable colors for this side are blue and black. -Warm colour tone to maintain earthiness and positivity of the space. -Pink to add a tinge of brightness while also using white to highlight the forms. -Use of DRACAENA REFLEXA: To purify the air quality and provide relaxation. -Use of STRELITZIA NICOLIA OR WILD BANANA: One of the most important plants for health in general as produces O2 and stimulates “happy hormones”.

The "Living Room"

Decoding the elements

According to FENGSHUIPUNDIT, to enhance good metal energy, one should use earthen colors such as brown, yellow or pink shades. Use of EARTHY AND “NEUTRAL” TONES FOR MAINTAINING THE BALANCE: Use of rough textures along with softness of pink tones can be seen to balance the yin-yang energy. AMALGAMATION OF TEXTURES AND FORMS AND MATERIALS: The boldness of leather, roughness of wall textures, NEUTRAL colours combined with soft angles or curves of not just the furniture but the space in general (curved glass wall) make a somewhat BALANCED space. Use of DRACAENA REFLEXA: To purify the air quality and provide relaxation. Use of STRELITZIA NICOLIA OR WILD BANANA: One of the most important plants for health in general as produces O2 and stimulates “happy hormones”.

The Spiral Staircase


The rugged textures of the concrete and the bulkiness of the whole core structure is balanced out by one simple curved form. This spiral staircase is an example of how a form can change or dull down the natural roughness of even raw concrete. It shows how when form is used along with a play of textures, it can all be balanced-out.

View from level 3

View from the "bedroom"

Sectional Elevation 1

Sectional Elevation 2

Level 1 Descriptive Floor Plan

Level 2 Descriptive Floor Plan

Level 3 Descriptive Floor Plan

Level 4 Descriptive Floor Plan

Level 5 Descriptive Floor Plan

Level 6 Descriptive Floor Plan

Sectional view AA'

Sectional View BB'


Continue Reading THE GLITCH STORY






Fabric of Delusion

Becoming The Glitch



Graveyard of Molecules





The Window
















Model development

This picture shows how to get the model based on visual angles

The model

This is the model I developed by visual angle theories. The model is used to verify the effectiveness of communications.

Communication Effectiveness Verification process

This picture shows how to use the model to verify the effectiveness of communication

The photo of the residential project

This is a residential project designed by myself in 2018, Singapore. This is the shared space.

Analysis of the residential project

This picture shows the verification of the communication effectiveness in a residential shared space. The project was designed by myself in 2018, Singapore.

the basic modules of the furniture

The furniture including floor chair, cushion with different fabrics and at least 9 basic modules, which can be connected and stacked over each other to create various configurations.

10. Final Design

These are the different scenarios when using my modular furniture.

Verification result

Verification result

Verification result

The stories

These are the stories I got from online resources and interview, which are used to get potential requirements for my final design

This project is more inclined to speculative design, which is to speculate about the living space in the near future, and reflects the solution to the current problems. It uses seemingly fragile disposable plastic to build a permanent space, so as to make people reflect on our current concept of disposable plastic consumption.

In the 1950s, the emergence of plastics has affected people's consumption habits. Due to its high cost performance and other advantages, people began to use plastic products in large quantities. At first, people didn't regarded plastics as disposable products, but as time went on,people found that they could achieve the purpose of cleaning by shopping and throwing things (for example: garbage bags), which reduced the time of housework, so that formed the habit of discarding. Influenced by people's consumption habits, the space began to appear with simple lines and colorful organic forms of plastic furniture.

In the 1960s, with the encouragement of the plastic consumer market, the trend of interior decoration -- "new Rococo" style has been intensified. Because of the variety colors of plastic, 1960s interior style is like an overturned palette

In the 1970s, people began to realize excessive consumerism and materialism, have the awareness of environmental protection. The interior style began to pay attention to natural elements

In the 1980s, plastic intensified the fast food culture, affected the post-modernism style, which pursued various color, patterns and textures

In the 1990s, entertainment, communication, home appliances and equipment which were made of plastic were widely used, people want to stay away from electronic devices, liberated from the rich space decoration before, resulting in minimalism

In the 21st century, people excessively rely on plastic, resulting in plastic pollution, people began to pay attention to the environment, and space paid more attention to the concept of sustainability. In general, plastic has affected people's consumption habits - from permanent consumption to disposable consumption;


However,Sidney Gross protested that the "problem of garbage" flowed not from packaging or plastics but from "our civilization, our exploding population, our life-style, our technology." Which means the main culprit of environmental pollution is not plastic itself, but the way people use plastic. Therefore, I think people should face up to the advantages of plastic materials. If they are not easily discarded, they will not cause pollution to the environment. The current economic system requires us to consume and discard more and more goods. However, the durability of these goods is usually our desires and best interest of the environment.We should change the habit of using plastic from disposable consumption to permanent consumption.From a once-and-for-all culture to an economy supported by more durable goods.


Study room


The aim of the project is to change people from disposable consumption habits to permanent consumption habits, and make people pay attention to plastic through furniture made of plastic: plastic is also a kind of durable material with a lot of practical value. The project makes full use of the "waste plastic" which every family has, creates a beautiful and delicated living space, involves all aspects of life, and improves people's prejudice against plastics,make people realize the value of plastic, so people wouldn't throw away plastic easily, thus indirectly reducing the plastic waste in the natural environment. Through the prediction of living space in the next 20 years,people can reflect on the current habit of using plastic.If human beings can face up to the two sides of plastics, develop their strengths and avoid their weaknesses: make full use of the advantages of plastics, do not arbitrarily discard, reuse or recycle plastics, the problem of plastic pollution can be well alleviated.


The living environment in the film equals social class

light experements

Human reaction to the color and angle of the light source

I mainly want to get people's reactions to different colors and angles of light sources in the experiment, and confirm the influence of light sources on people's body and mind

Optical Fiber

Experiments with Optical Fiber

The function and characteristics of Optical Fiber can be realized through experiments


Experiments with mirror

The function and characteristics of mirror can be realized through experiments

Acrylic Prisms

Experiments with Acrylic Prisms

The function and characteristics of Acrylic Prisms can be realized through experiments

Enviromental test

Test the availability of materials in a simulated basement environment

Design analysis

Analyze the light source demand for the indoor activities of residents

Design thoughts

Models and Environmental Test



Atmosphere Exterior

Exploded Axonometric

Translation of Jane Jacobs four methodologies into design

Public Space - Floor 12

Spa Area

Residential Floor - Floor 13

Residential Space

Public Floor - Floor 11

Restaurant Area

Floor Plan of Public Space - Floor 11

Floor plan of Residential Space - Floor 13

Levelling The High-Rise. Research report and portfolio

Continue Reading Levelling The High-Rise. Research report and portfolio

Concept image

Re-newing the faith space by the extension of a person’s willingness.

The aim of incense investigation

A faith, a sense, a temporary scenario... And the personal response on body and space.

Site analysis

The small temple located in my community, which is meaningful for me to analyze what emotions does it bring.

My sensory praying

What emotions does it bring out in mine?

Incense smoke investigation

A bunch of incense constitutes the continuous fog, which provides a diverse form of my actions. I realized that the extension of my willingness finally builds the temporary scenario via the medium of smoke.

Site experiments at different timelines

The environment provides the light effects, the direction of the wind and the heating feeling, which build the density, the height, and the colour of the smoke perspective.

Personal activating on the site engagement

I interrogated the medium of smoke as an extension of our body's willingness to re-shape the religious space, which could be seen as a new aura of our faith, to re-define the divine place, activating our belief of surrounding.

The temporary panorama at noontime

The perspective of noontime ( alley)

The perspective at noontime( worship space)

Viewing high of your faith

Re-shaping the religious space by personal aura

Another prototyping

The incense accessories- The extension of our body willingness.

The extension of our willingness.

The response of our emotional reflection.

The Theory: Bio-politics

The illustration created by the author shows the historical development of bio-politics.

The Concept Collage

The concept combines the visual elements collected amid the pandemic and reinvents a new spatial language.

The Graphical Pattern

The graphics are decomposed and reorganised as a new parttern.

The Site Reference

The design has taken four locations in Glasgow as references for the creation of the four ministries.

The Experimental Model

The physical model has explored the food distribution machine in the ministry of plenty.

Food Distribution Machine

A short animation created by the author has further examined the idea of the food distribution system.

Party Slogan

The party slogan: isolation is health; freedom is arrogance; obedience is safety.

Ministry of Love

People gather in the ministry of love showing their appreciation to the party. The televised programme, Daily Briefing, keeps update news about COVID-19.

Ministry of Plenty: Food Collection

Due to the lockdown, the supply chain has been disrupted. People are only allowed to obtain their 'fake' food and drink through the tiny window once in a day.

Food Collection Machine Drawing

The drawing shows the structure and construction of the machine in detail.

Ministry of Truth

Following the extreme 'social-distancing rule', physical contact should be terminated in the workplace. The installations have discouraged interaction and collaboration; it has implemented the 'one-way system'.

Ministry of Peace

As there is neither vaccine nor cure, people with symptoms of COVID-19 are isolated in the ministry of peace.

The Room 105

Room 105, same as a few other hundreds within the ministry of peace, is the 'best' place for the patients. It has provided 24-hour 'medical observation' by the CCTV camera, and the latest Daily Briefing.

001-environment and resource


003-bias caused by death


aboveground plan

underground plan





This is a space open to the public, filled with concrete cubes of varying heights, symbolizing different life lengths. Each cube is engraved with a QR code. People can scan them to get some unexpected information. It may be a paragraph of text, a picture, or a story, but they are all related to death. Here the relationship between the living and the dead will be re-established.


"The most surprising impression is the appearance of personal imprints, such as names or numbers that can evoke memories, as a representative medium or a way to express sadness." In the current digital age, the deceased Various information can be uploaded to the terminal. People can retrieve information about the deceased by touching the name on the screen. This information may be slowly forgotten by people, but it is converted into data and stays here forever. Traditional tombstones only provide two functions, one is to record limited information (name, date of birth and death, etc.) of the deceased, and the other is to provide a memorial place for the living. The occupation of land by tombstones will be a serious problem in the future. After we have solved the recording of the deceased's information with a new method, should there be a new tombstone form to replace the traditional tombstone?


The theoretical approach of stage 3 project is about the Decoloninsg design, whether decolonising the African culture, or decolonising female from patriarchy societies. Respectful design is and design for humanity, appreciating the cultural values. The aim of this thesis is to reveal the intangible African heritage through a feminist perspective.

Cultural Objects Material Exploration

Decolonising the land _African material .

I created a new_ ritual material_ for the nomads , the material is portable , can be make and remake which suites the nomadic mobile life, and also representing their identity.

diconstrut the exsisting form

New configuration for the cultural material. and form.

predicting female future through objects

shapes inspiration

rituals as material _space as objetcs

Most of the African nomads _the female is the responsibility to build the tent. the material used is the experiments material

Decoloninsing Mind _Body_Land

In some African tribes, coffee making has a process, ceremonies. I used this as a theme of this visual

conceptual ambience

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Bedroom, headboard






textural light

mirror & drape


bedroom model

clay urns

natural texture & earth colours

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burnt umber & silver

colour book

colour book

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elements, design language


elements, design language

collection of miniature clay scultpures in architectural forms



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triclineum model

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studio sketch

kitchen sketch

bathroom sketch


bathroom model


studio model

model of the house

surface design from gypsum

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interior details




Copper and yellow ochre

collage of space concept

Since at least the 20th century, men have been occupying the active position in social development and have treated women unfairly and restricted. In response to these situations, women began to call for equal rights, so they developed feminism. This project started research from the futurism‘s misogynist, and discussed the relationship between male-dominated society and feminism. This collage represents this relationship, and also expresses the opinion from a female futurist Saint-Point that androgynous being is the complete being, which responses to futurism. Therefore this place is for women and people whose gender identify as women to enhance their voice and support them in such a male-dominated society.

site selection

This building is occupied by this project as a masculinity building. Its dark single colour, rough texture and concise lines. Those are masculine features. The author of this painting of this building is Ettore Sottsass, who is a big fan of futurism. This is suitable for my starting point of research. In addition, the shape of this building and several small windows on the walls make the whole building look very private and there is a feeling that the internal space is well protected. This project wanted to use this atmosphere of this building to create a space to “protect” femininity.

plan & axonometric

by referring to a survey about women’s favourite leisure activities and considering project aim,the most important functions of this place are reading area, communication area and garden area. There are only feminism books in this building, people can get mental support by reading. And the communication area provides a place for them to share their experience freely and help each other with their problems. Garden area is not only a decorative area for femininity, but also it's a good way to make people relax by getting closer to nature.

urban outside

village outside

wildness outside

This project isn’t located any specific country, city or street, because, the male-dominated society isn’t some country or city’s characteristic, it is a common situation around the world. Therefore, I set it into three scenarios, one is in a busy city centre, one is in a quiet village, and the other is in wildness. I want to use these three scenarios to represent that women and people whose gender identity as a female can have access to the particular support wherever they are.

reception area

This is the reception area on the ground floor. The whole scene is mainly made of warm pink, with bright yellow and grey-blue as embellishments. These bright colours are selected from my theme colour, the adjusted Futurist Composition. Not only did it respond to my starting point of research, but it also set off the femininity atmosphere. The characters in the picture use sketches by the painter Jean-Antoine Watteau of the Rococo period. In the collage of characters. I use paintings from the Rococo period to enhance the atmosphere of femininity and meet one of the trends of retro-futurism in the inspiration.

mixed reading and communication

This is a mixed area of reading and open communication on the second floor. The objects on the heads of the characters in the picture represent what they are doing. The furniture in this project is all selected from Moooi, the brand's furniture style concept is fusion, suitable for the concept of androgynous of this project. The furniture selected in this scene has the flowing lines required by femininity in form, and the colour matches the atmosphere of the scene. Especially this cute rabbit lamp, under the echo of the garden, brings a relaxed and active atmosphere to space. In the elevator design, it got rid of the traditional elevator form. It borrows the look of frame elevators from ancient times to echo retro-futurism. The size of the elevator is larger than the ordinary elevator, because it has a flower pond on it, making the elevator not only a passage but also a movable garden display area.

cafe area

This is the coffee area on the second floor. This area is accompanied by a small garden, allowing people to enjoy a pleasant snack time in the company of nature. The design of the coffee table echoes the shape of the building and also provides an area for customers to sit and chat. Rose gold metal is used in this area to enhance the femininity atmosphere. Moooi's bird lights not only play a role in lighting in this space, but also make the whole environment full of a feminine fairy tale atmosphere. The shape of the bar stool looks like a female body, which is especially suitable for this space.

reading area

This area is the reading area on the third floor and the semi-open communication area on the fourth floor. The connection between these two areas is a sitting staircase where people can sit and read. All the readings in the reading area are about feminism. These readings can give better spiritual support to people who come here for help. According to statistics, one of the favourite leisure activities of women in reading. Therefore, in this community, the book area regularly organizes reading activities for everyone to communicate and discuss their reading experience. What separates the reading area from the semi-open communication area is not only the height difference of the floors but also the arched pink translucent glass with mottled patterns. The shape of this piece of glass echoes the shape of this building. The colour also matches the style of the wall. Its mottled patterns contrast with the smoother surrounding materials and also enrich the visual effects of the scene behind the glass.

semi-communication area with a garden

This is a semi-open communication area with garden. In this area, Moooi's signature lantern is used. This horse lamp is matched with the garden, setting off the indoor forest-like atmosphere. The carpet chosen is a pattern of flowers tiled, echoing the garden area. The sofa is made of velvet, which highlights the noble femininity. This semi-communication area can accommodate small groups of about 10 people for collective communication. Everyone can express their opinions and opinions equally here, and they can also share their own experiences in social life to help and support each other. In addition, in this area, gardening and flower arrangement activities are also carried out regularly. Help people here to release the pressure accumulated in daily life in a way that is close to nature.

private area

Concept Collage

Concept Collage-Supermarket


I want to introduce the functions of isolation and examination into the supermarket, and choose the Tesco nearby as an example.

Overview&Exploded view

Modules & Plan

Detailed Perspectives

Detailed Perspectives

Detailed Perspectives

Detailed Perspectives





















Difficulties of isolation

Lockdown has been affecting all aspects of domestic life including our spaces.


Curating a "recipe book" or "survival kit" for isolation: a series of means to deal with the various factors that impede communication, as well as methods of combining them tailored to different imagined living situations. While the factors hindering communication are extremely complex, they can be grouped in four main categories: Isolation, Communication, Safety and Privacy.

Expanding the space

Isolation and confined environments lead to the use of technology to access new environments. This new territory exists at the intersection of virtual and physical.

Digital translations

Experiments made with 3D scanning of a room allow for the physical to be translated into virtual. This makes possible the sharing of spaces with no actual contact.

Cleaning frenzy

The relationship between space and hygiene informs the visual language of the home as well as the integration of technology in the environment. From sterilising devices to drone delivery or a virtual assistant that cheeks and reminds you of the steps to take when entering the home.

A multisensory experience

Good communication involves all of the senses: scent reproduction devices and motion sensor clothing alleviate the sense of distance when communicating with loved ones.

Using exterior spaces

Lacking a designated working space can be challenging. For some the obvious choice is to expand the limitations of their space, using the backyard.


Sometimes we need time apart: spending lockdown with others makes it imperative to have options for reconfiguring and separating the space.

Museum at home

Social life is moved to the domestic space that becomes art exhibition, theatre venue, fashion show or any other event that it needs to be.

Virtual dinner party

In times when the physical presence of others in the home is not allowed technology makes it possible to once again have guests, blurring the line between virtual and physical.

Co-design workshop, 2019

Co-design workshop, 2019

Co-design workshop with household, 2020

Co-design workshop with household, 2020

Co-design workshop at the site, 2020

Co-design workshop at the site, 2020

Developing democratic co-design tools: entering the site in Virtual Reality

A Challenging Commercial Climate

With consumer confidence dropping further every day, retailers already faced a challenging commercial climate. In countries with main Covid-19 outbreaks, retail has been one of the hardest-hit sectors.

Evolution of retail

The history of retail can be divided into four periods, over the past two years, the retail sector has moved away from brands dictating how, when and where items are sold, purchased and shared, to consumers embracing direct-to-consumer models or creating their own peer-driven platforms. However, covid-19 has led shoppers to flock back to trusted household names and brands they recognise as safe and supportive. So, I am wondering how the relationship between brands and consumers is becoming increasingly conversational and circular?

Concept:A Frictionless Sound Theatre

A new retail model is coming: It is a new self-service store in post-pandemic era. Online shopping customers to try on their purchases, make returns and send packages. Also, for online brains do present their products to the consumers. For brand experience center, I want to metaphorically replicate a journey of hearing: as visitors walk up stair what they can perceive with their ears become more. This kind of action mode is like a journey, from eyesight controlling the desire to an un-instagrammable place, where can hear the curiosity.

Hangzhou: the hub of Chinese e-commerce

The site I chose is the center of Hangzhou in China, because Hangzhou is the hub of Chinese e-commerce, Lakeside Street located in the most prosperous business, tourism and leisure area of Hangzhou. Generally, it is the gathering place of many chain stores. For the brand, I chose Yeation, which is an online shopping platform owned by Chinese Internet technology company NetEase mainly for household supplies, its also the pioneer of online brand materialization. Last year, it opened the first offline store of the region in Shanghai, but it is still a design in traditional social scenes, if it wants to lead the future trend of retail, the physical store must adapt to the wave of new technology and make changes.

Form Generation

How to create these visions? There are 3 strategies. First one is Touch Free Technology, it will be an essential tool for facilitating customer interactions that don’t require touch. Secondly, Bespoke sound strategies, use sound to tell brand stories in unique and exciting ways. Finally, automated storage and retrieval system, which directs the proper automated storage and retrieval machine (SRM) to the location where the item is stored and directs the machine to deposit the item at a location where it is to be picked up. It can reduce labor, reduced inventory levels, more accurate tracking of inventory, and space savings.

Customer Journey Map

hygienic purchasing process

Interactive shop window

How to create a meaningful waiting experience? The potential for interactive digital experiences opens up a new world of possibility. Shop windows become a huge screen for urban soundscape. The purpose is using technology to bring people into the physical life. After visualizing the urban soundscape around the building, the generated visualization would be projected onto shop windows.


unmanned warehouse

food area


sample room

Cafe being disinfected

The frictionless sound theatre

Finally, in order to create a multi-sensory brand experience, I combine different audio dimension of the brand with the spaces and made a video.


part3 and part4

artwork layout1

artwork layout 2



The mysterious path of experiencing the darkest part of our lives and its very first step. Viewers have the opportunity to go towards their traumas caused by abuse through the place history of which was full of violence

Night time

The view of the church at night with the entire space being covered with fog. This is the very beginning of the path of viewers where they decide what they want to do.

Material day

The ball in daytime, illustrates the way we can (can't) see traumas when we think about them

Material night

The ball is illuminated by spotlights and reveals the inside of it - toxic smoke that is a metaphor of traumas and their destructive nature



Story Area

Story Area

Ocean Area

Ocean Area

Energy Area

Energy Area


Future Development


The corridor connecting the next space is filled with propeller-shaped blades that people need to find their way through, which is more likely to make them feel more engaged. At the same time, it fits in with the theme of vortex, which can be created by propellers.


In this space, hemispherical objects on the ground will keep rising with the time, it can create obstacles for people when they are walking, giving them the sensation of stumbling, and this can simulate a feeling of when they learnt how to walk as a child. I believe that we all remember a feeling of when we're learning to walk, there's always somewhere between falling and not falling.


This transition reflects the process of people’s growing up, when they come into contact with the outside world, light can gradually pass through the hollow of the top, implying the exploration of the world. In this corridor, the dark corridor itself implies the process of our growth, especially before people were exposed to social circles. When people walk through the corridor, the light will pass through the hollow part at the top, indicating the process when people gradually grow up and start to contact with the outside world and socialize with different people.


When we were born, we know very little about the world. It can be seen as that everyone is in a cube of their own. As we grow up and begin to experience the outside world, our little cubes are filled with all sorts of things that we experience. In this space, each frame represents a person's story, and as people begin to socialize and make friends, each person's story is exchanged. When the audience moves around in these frameworks, it represents the process of people’s growing up when they meet different people carrying their own stories and experiences.


In this space, the partition is a vague transition, people can see the space inside, but people need to push the door to enter the next space. This door is as a divider between dream and reality. Because when people grow up, they have to face the pressure from study and work in life, sometimes people have to put their dreams aside in order to survive. When people push the door to get inside, it implies that they are forced to make a choice, when their life is entering the next stage.


In this connection, the corridor is long and people have to walk a long way to reach to the next space. When the audience walks through this part of the road, they will find that the road is long and tortuous, which implies challenges and difficulties in life.


The final one is the road leading to the exit. When people come here, the steps will fall from the top step by step, which is to provide more time for the audience to think about their own life journey when they are leaving this space. I want to make the steps as long as possible, so people can have enough time to look back on their life journey when they step out of the space, and be able to have the opportunity to think about what they achieve and what they lose in their life, because we only have one chance to live, and it is a one-way trip.






Final Visual - Palimpsest

When the water come (The isolated island by Yining Fang)

This animation is a spin-off from the research project 'The Isolated Island' The Glasgow School of Art - MDes in Interior Design - Stage 3 Created by Yining Fang Music: Space Oddity by David Bowie


My initial motivation is from the multicultural phenomenon driven by immigration. Although many communities are diverse in their population components, the space of the community still retains the independence of a certain cultural phenomenon, rather than the integration of various cultures. This gives me more expectation about the multicultural community space. Specifically, I chose the multicultural community in Guangzhou as my research background, the target group are mainly the local Cantonese and Nigerian.

Collage of buildings in Lagos (Nigeria) and Guangzhou (China)

Elements composition

For the further design, I made a series of models which deconstruct the cultural symbols and it’s a catalogue of artefacts extracted from Nigerian/African and local Cantonese/Chinese culture, they are recreated as architectural elements of the project.

Redefining the community

The theory I used in this project is about the 'Event Space' proposed by Tschumi. I hope to be able to explore larger aspects from a broader perspective, through describing a narrative and exaggerated multicultural community through overall planning, so as to express a vision of cultural coexistence. The community is planned as a whole in the composition form of points, lines and planes, and the long corridor runs through the community, connecting various areas, and creating multi-centre and multi-directional layout. Five event spaces are dispersed in the community in the form of points, therefore to encouraging people's engagement and activate the community.

I would like to design a community that is different from the traditional sense. In this fantasy complex community, there are shops, restaurants, food street, residences, social spaces, performance space, activity space, etc.

Present in several places at the same time.

Chronophotography helped revealing the actual path of the body movement and the invisible lines between the body and space.

Project Site - Guest Space.

One Minute sculpture

Engaging the body with the guest space against in unconventional ways to enhance the user's spatial awareness.

Finger Extensions

Reconstructing the body through movement techniques, technology and costumes

Costume as an Extension to the body.

Site Specific Costume

Using body movement as an inspiration for costume making. This costume will enhance both the internal and external bodily awareness.

Inflatable Costumes

Designing a moving/changing costume in relationship to a moving/changing body.

Experimenting with Inflatable Costumes.



The New Game of Life

The background story of the game

4 main levels of the game


The game start at players' own home. The first chapter help them to recollect the memory behind one object.


Then the player will be guided to the business street nearby.


Players will gather two kits of elements through the first two levels


Then they will use these elements to complete the mission to take their creativity back

Final Level

After all, the player will be leaded to city centre to submit the final choice — inherit all the data and become next dark enterprise or give the creativity back to the world

Visual for Level1

Visual for Level2

Visual for Level3

Visual for Final Level

The Human Last Resort

It is an existence for people to think about, it is inclusive and an infinite possibility.

Background: This world seems to become a 'reverse zoo'

During the epidemic, animals took to the streets, while humans became ‘trapping animal’

The COVID-19 outbreak has restricted human freedom while giving other animals the opportunity to move more freely. There is a global debate about who should bear the burden of the pandemic. The truth is outbreak of this pandemic ultimately comes from human, from human overuse of the earth's resources. The current life of human not only destroyed the living environment of other species but now, in turn, poses a massive threat to human survival and life. During the epidemic, humans experienced an environment improvement, and the value of a lot of things by humans to rethink in the slow era of reduced consumption. Keeping the planet's ecology sustainable and suitable is the basis for the continued survival of human as a species on the earth. This means that we should rethink our lifestyle, and human needs an environment-friendly lifestyle for future.


Consumerism first appeared in the 1600s, and it has spread across most countries in the world in the 21st century. Alongside the modernisation of consumerism, it has produced more waste of resources and damages to the ecological system.

The advantages and disadvantages of consumerism are very obvious. However, the contradictions caused by the emergence of consumer attention have not been well solved in the past several hundred years, but also added many new problems, such as the objectification of people, distortion of values, environmental degradation and extinction of species. And this consumerism seems to be an "unstoppable" pattern. Yuval Noah Harari described in Sapiens that if a modern capitalist economy is to survive, it needs more and more production, like a shark that will suffocate if it doesn't swim. And consumerism is the product of sustainable capitalism. Harari calls consumerism a code of ethics that ensures that humans will continue to buy to prevent capitalism from stagnating. I am not against consumption per se, but I am not in favour of consumption as an end or money as a religion. Consumerism seems to have created a bottomless pit that cannot be filled and has no end.

A tipping point for human future

At present, human beings have approached a tipping point that all our choices will lead to a future which has ‘no return’.

Compare With Original Lifestyle

In the research, I have found out that human living experience may not be as good as it was in agricultural times. We always want to find a pathway to pursue a more relaxing life, but this has, instead, brought more difficulties. Comparing these two periods in human history, I have revisited and enjoyed the more natural and friendly nomadic era. In there, money was not the media in trade but Barter, which was the model of social exchange.

Centre change

Since the status of money has leapfrogged from an intermediate, the shape of the entire society has changed unconsciously. Schools and medical classes that were originally in the social centre gradually moved out of the city centre. And the originally social place has gradually become a giant shopping mall with consumption. Therefore, our current social centre has become centred on ‘money’ and ‘right’.

In the new nomadic life system, the barter to be a theme, re-zero the value of money. Here, the four elements that people need most brought back to the core of society. This is a not materialized world, and the values of money no longer bound people in disguise. This social made up of real needs. In this new system, everything is possible, thinking is free, and the meaning of each person's existence is defined by himself.

Nature create vs Human product

Borrowing the elements found in the natural world, the design has adapted sustainable form, materials and structure. This nomadic building design not only to be environmentally friendly but also to decompose pollutants created by humans and purify the environment.

House units plan

The furniture employed in the design has been modular, whose construction has stressed the central areas. The model has been expanded to a broader architectural and urban scale. Examining different scales of spaces, I have wanted to intervene or even break the cycle of consumerism. Everything here is modular, and people can live according to their needs and hobbies.

Modular furniture design

Activities schematic

Here I want to design modular furniture that can combine more daily activities. By studying the scale of the human body, trying to find a suitable height size ratio for design.

Modular furniture arrange


People are now aware of the evils of consumerism, but they think their influence is small. (In my questionnaire, two-thirds of people are aware that consumerism leads to a worse living environment for human beings. But most say the effect is minimal.) Later (in 2049), the environment became worse. Instead of being restrained, people at that time consumed the earth's resources in a crazy way. (If a modern capitalist economy is to survive, it must produce more and more, just as a shark, if it does not swim all the time, suffocates.- Sapiens, Yuval Noah Harari) Gradually a group of pioneers appeared, who thought that such consumption and plunder could no longer be done. In their analysis, consumerism is not a sustainable way of life. They abandoned this mode of extreme material life and reentered a new nomadic world. So this little community came into being. It's a barter, education, health, and social community. With the evolution of time, the living environment of cities becomes worse and worse, and more and more people realize that maybe they should change their living mode. People are here to discuss life, to discuss ideas, to build a new perfect world system. It's about thinking, exploring and experimenting with new forms of life. It is not known whether this would last long, but people began to think about a more harmonious model of man and nature.

House units - Floating and On the land

House units Overlook - Floating

House units Overlook - On the land

Fishing And Planting

Centre - Social

Centre - Education

Centre - Barter Transaction

Centre - Medical

Overlook - Community

CONCLUSION: With concerns over the environmental problems facing us today, the research has sought for an alternative life mode, which can achieve a better ecological balance between human activities and the earth. With emphasises on the human need, and theorised by the 'non-one-way degree of human', I am convinced that my new interpretation of nomadic lifestyle is one of the possible solutions. Through this project, I hope to make more people think about their behaviour and their relationship with nature.

Exhibition Layout

Choice Space Details

In this exhibition, there are many choices for the visitor's path, which also makes its navigation more challenging. In order to take advantage of this, visitors are navigating based on wind directions and adventure maps, which makes their journey as if the protagonist Polo in the novel travels through different cities.

Concept collage

Analysis 1

Analysis 2

Analysis 3

Analysis 4

Analysis 5

Analysis 6

Social distance

Portable/Mobile section

Working flow of flexible section

Working flow of flexible section

Spatial rendering of flexible section

Spatial rendering of flexible section

Extension Structure Typology

The expanded structural typology was derived from the architectural concept of space expansion: Parasitic Architecture. Through the case study, spatial expansion methods were classified by type. Among the types, folding, modular and sliding are usually attached to the facade using wood or concrete, expanding the space in a rigid and robust way/manner, but it was difficult to meet the definition of 'Flexibility'. This conclusion led the way to explore the inflatable structure.

Conceptual Collage

The collage abstractly shows design idea about space expansion during a pandemic. The concept of the expansion proposes sets of direction with what architectural elements to use and how to expand them presented an important direction for conclusions. In response to this, a flexible housing by expanding the space through an inflatable structure using an architectural element called a window by synthesizing previous studies. There are many architectural elements such as chimneys, pipes, and windows, but considering that there are differences in architectural elements according to various cultures and lifestyles, expansion through the largest common elements was pursued regardless of these differences. The window is another door that connects the outside and the inside and is an essential element that exists in the residential space. The inflatable structure was also decided in that it could be used in a variety of residential spaces and situations regardless of this.

Exploded Axonometric

Exploded axonometric is an representation of how the structure is attached to a building through a window. Inflatable bubbles require several steps to attach to the building. First, the Window Frames Holder can be secured to the window frame using a screw and a screwdriver to put the pole on the holder. These fixed structures are connected with the inflatable structure through the string. The support is connected to a pole fixed to the window frame to minimize movement of the bubble. The bubble is made for 1-2 people and the maximum weight is 90kg. Furthermore, for use in various situations and groups, the windows have zippers to connect with other structures.

System Diagram

The system describes how Inflatable Structure receives power to build the space. Helium is lighter than oxygen, so it can give more power to support the weight more than oxygen. Also, using the principle of an electric air pump, helium pump in the room transmits energy to the structure outside through the tube. The bubble has a double structure that prevents helium from entering the occupied space.

Helium Circulation System Diagram

A system of helium circulation is applied to prevent releasing helium from the structure over time. Applying the same principle of an air pump, it is a system that continues to circulate as helium inflating from one tube and helium deflating from the other.

Scenario Illustration

This illustration is expressed by imagining how people use the bubbles and how they can create new way of communication in their life. People can read or meditate in a quiet bubble and feel like away from home for a while. Children can sometimes bring their friends and play like their own den. They can also use connecting zipper to play with their neighbors. In the park, people can safely enjoy their time being outside by using the bubble as a tent to get their own space.


Collages are a representation of the bubbles used in various types of buildings, such as housing, flat, villa, and high-rise. It effectively shows the flexible spaces can be used in various places and situations. In the collages, you also can find connected the bubbles using the connecting zipper.


Further Suggestion_User Guide

The images represent the user guide included in the bubble kit. A kit like IKEA's furniture is considered as a further suggestion for the inflatable bubble to make it easier for more people to use this structure. This practical thinking has led the way to imagine other parts such as a step stool that can be used to enter the bubble.


Key theories


The manifestation of gender discrimination in public space

Case studies

Design Scheme


Origin of architectural form

The sculpture exhibition area

Sculpture Exhibition Area

Painting and Photography Exhibition Area

The historical exhibition area

Characteristic experience space

The activity area

Second floor atrium landscape design

immersive space

The leisure area

Interior space design of the fourth floor

The Surprise Box

The Surprise Box


Window extension 1

The prototype design of the window extension can be adjusted according to different Windows and space size, to achieve a more flexible external space for the residences.

View through the frame

From the opening of the device itself and the hollow form of the external bridge space, zoom out visual sense is formed, which represent the concept of ‘aperture’, but it could also be a ‘Pause button’ for people to get access or not

Extension for working leisure

This space expresses the concept of a ‘security blanket ’, and the picture shows the leisure time during work. From this point of view, the translucent glass acts as a vague protective barrier.

Elevation_2 Night

Functional changes can provide new entertainment for surrounding residents at night

Overlook of the bridge function between the two residential building

The bridge is a connection and expressed the ‘loop’ idea when people are standing in there, they been in the centre of the surrounding buildings, which represent the ‘pause button’ concept, to have a thinking of how to ‘being’ in the space.

Turn unfinished buildings into bridges and connections between urban and rural areas